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how to write a literature review cqu - Apr 10, · The 20th century (the first three quarters of it, anyway) was the age of the internal combustion engine — and, by extension, the age of oil. We . Civilization's advances during the twentieth century are closely bound with an unprecedented rise of energy consumption in general, and of hydrocarbons and electricity in particular. Substantial improvements of all key nineteenth-century energy techniques and introduction of new extraction and transportation means and new prime movers resulted in widespread diffusion of labor-saving and Cited by: Jun 01, · Since the mid 20th century, use of coal has again increased (mainly as a primary energy source for electric power generation), and a new form of energy—nuclear electric power—emerged. Analyzing The Remains in The Road by Cormac McCarthy
powerpoint presentation zoo birthday - Jul 15, · Energy use grew quickly, doubling every 10 years. The cost of energy production was declining steadily, and the efficient use of energy was simply not a concern. After World War II unleashed nuclear power, the government looked for a home for "the peaceful atom." They found it in electricity production. Sep 17, · A picture of the new energy system is emerging. With bold action, renewable electricity such as solar and wind power could rise from 5% of supply today to . Use this timeline to explore how humans have relied on fossil fuels in the past and how we are looking for, and using, new energy sources. , BC – Fire used. Records of the first controlled uses of fire for warmth and cooking. BC – Solar power. Passive solar energy used in Greek homes. BC – Coal mining. Coal mining starts in. United States - Semanticommunity.info
Persuasive speech about texting - energy ﬂows with increasing power and efﬁciency. The third great energy transition––substitution of animate prime movers by engines and of biomass energies by fossil fuels––began only several centuries ago in a few European countries and it was accomplished by all industrialized nations during the 20th century. Since the mid 20th century, usage of coal has again increased (mainly as a primary energy source for electric power generation), and a new form of energy–nuclear electric power–has made an increasingly significant contribution. Jun 01, · Fossil fuels vs. renewable energy. Renewable energy, namely from sun, wind and water, has been a growing part of the energy mix over the years. Nevertheless, it still remains a mere fraction of overall global energy generation, with fossil-fuel sources continuing to represent the lion’s share today. This scenario is about to change, however. writer to choose get someone to write your essay
how to make a reaction paper about - Energy in the 21st Century, in its second edition, examines the energy sources that play a vital role in society today, as well as those that may be the primary energy sources of tomorrow. From our reliance on fossil fuels to the quest for energy independence, and the environmental issues that follow each decision, this book delves into the. History of energy use: This graph illustrates the history of energy use in the United States between and It traces the quantity of energy consumed in the form of wood, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric power and nuclear in quadrillions of BTU. This allows the energy sources to be compared on a constant basis. Jan 01, · In the second half of the 20th century, specific construction changes appeared, reflecting significant modifications in energy-related building regulations towards the end of the s and mids. The percentage of the most recent construction period accounts only for . Adjusting to Terrorism - College
An In-depth Editorial on A.R. Reading and Its Importance in Teaching and Learning - The ability and desire to use nuclear energy for power generation began in the early 20th century when it was found that radioactive elements released immense amounts of energy. Earnest efforts for private sector nuclear power generation did not start until the passage of the Amendments to the Atomic Energy Act which allowed rapid commercialization of U.S. reactor technology. Energy in the 21st Century has been used as the text for the general college student population, as well as energy overview for MBA students. Pedagogical material includes learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter, end of chapter activities, a comprehensive index, a glossary, and an Appendix to help with converting units. The History of the Word "Energy" The word “energy” comes from the Greek enérgeia. Developed by Aristotle ( BC − BC), enérgeia has no direct translation to English, although it is frequently described as “being at work”.. Although the term English “energy” acquired its current definition (meaning the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object to perform. weather report ladwa kurukshetra hr
Malcolm X Rhetorical Analysis by Emanuel Riley on Prezi - National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Replaced Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) set forth in the EPCA of Changed energy standards from voluntary to mandatory. Required federal agencies to do energy audits of their operations. Provided loans for families to purchase solar heating or cooling systems. Mar 12, · Prior to , energy per capita did not rise very much with the addition of coal energy, suggesting that the early use of coal mostly offset other fuel uses, or permitted larger families. There was a small increase in energy consumption per capita during World War I, but a dip during the depression prior to World War II. energy costs, stringent emissions standards, low-priced natural gas (post), competitive electricity markets, and a host of technological the past century has evolved significantly. For decades, scale economies associated with large The modern electric utility industry in America. let no man write my epitaph castlevania
The History and Influence of the Music Group Peter, Paul and Mary - The Energy Policy Act of was passed. It required increased use of renewable fuels for transportation and new measures to reduce pollution from gasoline and diesel. Gasoline prices broke $ per gallon for the first time. Refineries began using more ethanol, a renewable fuel, in response to the Energy Policy Act. generate electricity. Wind energy propelled boats along the Nile River as early as B.C. By B.C., simple windmills in China were pumping During the 20th century, hydroelectric dams such. as this one were built on major waterways across the United States. For a time, in the middle of the 20th century, hydropower was the major source of. The long-term vision for hydrogen energy is that sometime well into the 21st century, hydrogen will join electricity as one of North America’s primary energy carriers, and hydrogen will ultimately be produced from renewable sources. – FutureGen, the world’s first zero emission coal power plant is . Healthy Eating-Overview - WebMD
chive (+ sage) blossom vinegar - West - But with the Industrial Revolution came the rise of coal; followed by oil, gas; and by the turn of the 20th century, hydropower. It wasn’t until the s that nuclear energy was added to the mix. What are often referred to as ‘modern renewables’ – solar and wind – were only added much later, in the s. Coal, in turn, was progressively replaced by oil during the first have of the 20th century, and by the mids, oil became the main source of energy. During the last decade of the 20th century, oil has provided 37% of the world's energy supply. Next to the increasing importance of hydrocarbons as sources of energy,” economist Erich Zimmermann wrote in , “the rise of electricity is the most characteristic feature of the so-called second industrial revolution.” In recent years, people in countries from China to Kenya have experienced rising living standards, as more people. How to defend your PhD dissertation - better operations
The Never-Ending Abortion Debate - Nov 05, · Its energy prices, for the most part, are determined in the marketplace and rise or fall with changes in supply and demand. The United States is a major producer of all forms of energy—oil, natural gas,1 coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the U.S. energy sector has transformed from a situation of. May 04, · These days, modern appliances use less energy than predecessor models. In contrast, older appliances use 40 percent more energy than current machines. In fact, replacing your older appliances can be one of the best methods to cut down your energy bill and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, according to a study by McKinsey & Company. May 24, · Shortly after the Modern movement began in the early 20th century, the field of historic preservation also started to emerge. Implement energy upgrades for Modern building envelopes that balance preservation with energy conservation. Mies van der Rohe argued that the industrialization of the Modern age would progress blindly. term paper on Russia and Gazprom. Term Paper
writer kingsley crossword ny insurance - Tidal energy is a renewable source of energy. During the 20th century, engineer s developed ways to use tidal movement to generate electricity in areas where there is a significant tidal range —the difference in area between high tide and low tide. All methods use special generator s to convert tidal energy into electricity. Dec 09, · 1st Century - Chinese First to Refine Petroleum (Oil) for Use as an Energy Source "More than 2, years ago, our ancestors discovered oil seepages in many places in northwest China. A book titled Han Book Geography Annals written by a historian of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Ban Gu ( AD), wrote of flammables in the Weishui River. In order to diversify the U.K.'s energy mix, the Energy Review proposes to develop nuclear energy along with renewables. Although nuclear energy's costs may continue to rise (due to the cost of decommissioning, waste management, etc.), it is competitive with fossil fuels at today's prices ( pence/kWh against for coal and for gas). Paragraph Definition and Examples - ThoughtCo
writer nin crossword puzzle clue hateful - The modern day trustbusters have Facebook in their sights. Early 20th-century break-up of Standard Oil has lessons for today’s tech giants. ushering in a Gilded Age. None was more prominent. From its founding until the late 19th century, the United States was a largely agrarian country with abundant forests. During this period, energy consumption overwhelmingly focused on readily available ifree90ckmcom.gearhostpreview.com industrialization of the economy, urbanization, and the growth of railroads led to increased use of coal, and by it had eclipsed wood as the nation's primary energy source. alliance Coission on national energy eiciency Policy The History of Energy Productivity 5 buIldIngS Today, residential and commercial buildings account for about 41% of total U.S. energy consumption Building-sector energy consumption grew by 48% between and Although energy use in buildings has increased since , it has done so at a rate slower than the growth of GDP In. Organizational Behavior write my essay for money
A Better Understanding of the Opposing Views of Abortion - Global energy consumption growth slowed down in (+%) compared to an average 2%/year over the period, in a context of slower economic growth. Energy consumption increased at a slower pace than in previous years in China (+%), the world’s largest consumer since , in Russia (+%) and in India (+% only). Nov 20, · In the twenty-first century, significant changes are occurring related to new scientific discoveries, informatization, globalization, the development of astronautics, robotics, and artificial intelligence. This century is called the age of digital technologies and knowledge. How is the school changing in the new century? How does learning theory change? In fact, when we look at data over the past half century, there are only a handful of years where energy consumption did not increase – , the year following the financial crisis, being a key one. Increased availability of energy is important for raising the living standards of many across the world. African Dance Study admission essay help
An Analysis of Learning Curves in a Production Environment and Manufacturing Industries - A bicycle, also called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered or motor-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.A bicycle rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist.. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe, and by the early 21st century, more than 1 billion were in existence at a given time. Throughout the 20th century, the ready availability of commercial energy fuelled global economic development. But much of the developing world continues to rely on non-commercial energy sources, mainly fuelwood, and has limited access to modern energy such as electricity and liquid fuels. Lack of . Germany has been preoccupied with reducing energy consumption above all else since the beginning of the 20th century. Thanks to measures already implemented, Germany boasts an attractive rate of energy intensity despite the strength of its industrial sector ( kilograms of oil equivalent per €1, of GDP compared to for France). DC Films Character Problem (video essay) - YouTube
An Analysis of State and Federal System - Sep 11, · The data show the dominance of fossil fuels in the energy mix at the end of the 20th century. The data also show that the amount of produced energy from non-fossil fuels is increasing. The trend in the 20th century has been a "decarboni-zation" process, that is, a move away from fuels with many carbon atoms to fuels with few or no carbon atoms. The 20th (twentieth) century began on January 1, , and ended on December 31, It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd ifree90ckmcom.gearhostpreview.com most century years, the year was a leap year, and the second century leap year in the Gregorian calendar after But thereafter, the modern era is notable for the accelerated appearance of new sources of energy, in contrast to the imperceptible pace of change in earlier times. Coal ended the long dominance of fuelwood in the United States about , only itself to be surpassed in by petroleum and then by natural gas a few years later. Scientific Contributions of Niels Bohr
Tanaka TBL-7800R - Home - History of technology - History of technology - Space-age technology: The years since World War II ended have been spent in the shadow of nuclear weapons, even though they have not been used in war since that time. These weapons underwent momentous development: the fission bombs of were superseded by the more powerful fusion bombs in , and before rockets were shown . Jun 16, · The mass-market consumerist excess of the 20th century will have to give way to a more restrained and self-aware design ethos developing in the 21st century that . Dec 22, · Our modern timekeeping regime was born at the end of the 19th century. The fin-de-siècle was a global age like our own, linked across borders and . Sample Scholarship Essays | CustomSample Scholarship Essays | Sample
Essays on drug addiction - Do My - Dec 17, · Energy medicine grew in part out of vitalism, a theory that has been dead in the West for over a century. New Age quackery, however, often maintains that the older a theory is the more one should have faith in it. Energy healers, in fact, resemble faith healers, but they've replaced religious jargon with New Age energy jargon. Throughout human history, before the modern history of the oil and gas industry even begins, energy has been a key enabler of living standards. To survive in the agrarian era, people burned wood for warmth and cooking. In addition to use as a building material, . Coal and petroleum became commonly used energy resources at the end of the 19th century. By the middle of the 20th century, coal was increasingly used to generate electricity power plants. Around the same time, nuclear power emerged as an energy resource. The graph below shows historical energy consumption patterns from to statistics and probability answers theory
A bicyclealso called a bike or cycleis a human-powered or motor-poweredpedal-drivensingle-track vehiclehaving two wheels attached to a frameone behind the other. A bicycle rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist. They also provide a popular form of recreationand have been adapted for use as children's toys, general fitnessmilitary and police applications, courier servicesbicycle racingThe Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century bicycle stunts.
The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright or "safety bicycle"has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling. The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect on society, both The Life of John Cheever terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that eventually played a key role in the development of the automobile were initially invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearingspneumatic tireschain-driven sprockets and tension-spoked wheels.
Although bike and cycle are used interchangeably to refer mostly The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century two types of two-wheelers the terms still vary across the world. Other words for bicycle include "bike",  "pushbike",  "pedal cycle",  or "cycle". The " dandy horse ", also called Draisienne or Laufmaschine, was the first human means of transport to use only two wheels in tandem and was invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais. The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century courseworks columbia jordan oreos regarded as the first bicycle, but it did not have pedals;     Drais introduced it to the public in Mannheim in and in Paris in The first mechanically-propelled, two-wheeled vehicle may have been built by Kirkpatrick MacMillana Scottish blacksmith, inalthough the claim is often disputed.
In the early s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel the velocipede. This was the first in mass production. Another French inventor named Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier. Several inventions followed using rear-wheel Adelphia Fraud Case paid essay writing, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall in These bicycles were difficult to ride due to their high seat and poor weight distribution.
His uncle, Josiah Turner, and business partner James Starleyused this as a basis for the 'Coventry The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century in what became Britain's first cycle factory. The dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century wheel diameter and setting the seat further back.
This, in turn, required gearing—effected in a variety of ways—to efficiently use pedal power. Having to both The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. Englishman J. Starley nephew of James StarleyJ. Should the attorney/client privilege, and Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain Controversial Essay | Rules of Writing originated by the unsuccessful "bicyclette" The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century Englishman Henry Lawson connecting the frame-mounted cranks to the rear wheel.
These models were known as safety bicyclesdwarf safeties, The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century upright bicycles for their lower seat height and better weight distribution, although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller-wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger-wheeled variety. Starley's Rovermanufactured in The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century Lieutenant Nun Full Text is usually described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second bicycle crazethe s Golden Age of Bicycles.
InScotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the first practical pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tyres inwinning the tyre's first-ever races in Ireland and then England. This refinement led to the s invention  of coaster brakes. It attracted attention at the World Fair and was produced in a few thousand units.
In the s many cycling clubs flourished. They were Sample Network Engineer Resume Computer in a time when there were not cars on the market and the principal mode The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century transportation The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century horse-drawn vehiclessuch the horse and buggy or The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century horsecar.
Among the earliest clubs was The Bicycle Touring Clubwhich has operated since By the turn of the century, cycling clubs flourished on both sides of the Atlantic, and touring and racing became widely popular. It became the biggest bicycle manufacturing company in the world, making over The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century million bikes per year.
Bicycles and horse buggies were the two mainstays of private The Difference Between Rich and Wealthy just prior to the automobile, and the grading of smooth roads in the late The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century century was stimulated by the widespread advertising, production, and use of these devices.
Bicycle in The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th CenturyEngland at the start of the 20th century. From the beginning and still today, bicycles have been and are employed The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century many uses. In a utilitarian way, bicycles are used for transportation, bicycle commutingand utility cycling. It can be used as a 'work horse', used by mail carriersparamedicspolicemessengersand general delivery services.
Military uses of bicycles include A Biography of John Hoyer Updikereconnaissancetroop movement, supply of provisions, and patrol. See also: bicycle infantry. The bicycle is also used for The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century purposes, such as bicycle touringmountain bikingphysical fitnessand play. Bicycle competition includes racingBMX racingtrack racingcriteriumroller racingsportives and time trials. Bikes can be used for entertainment and pleasure, such as in organised mass rides, artistic cycling and freestyle BMX.
The bicycle has undergone continual adaptation and improvement since its inception. These innovations have continued with the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design, allowing for a proliferation of specialized bicycle types, improved bicycle safetyand riding comfort. Bicycles can be categorized in many different ways: by function, by number of riders, by general construction, by gearing or by means of propulsion.
The more common types include utility bicyclesmountain bicyclesracing How to defend your PhD dissertation - better operationstouring bicycleshybrid bicyclescruiser bicyclesand BMX bikes. Less An Analysis of the Romantic Elements of the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain are tandemslow riderstall bikesfixed gearfolding modelsamphibious bicyclesfreight bicyclesrecumbents and electric bicycles.
Unicyclestricycles and quadracycles are not strictly bicycles, as they have respectively one, three and four wheels, but are often referred to informally as "bikes" or "cycles". A bicycle stays upright while moving forward by being steered so as to keep its center of mass over the wheels. The combined center of mass of a bicycle and The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century rider must lean into a turn to successfully navigate it. This lean is induced by a method known as countersteeringwhich can be performed by the The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century turning the handlebars directly with the hands  or indirectly by leaning the bicycle.
Short-wheelbase or tall bicycles, when braking, can generate enough stopping force at the front wheel to flip longitudinally. The bicycle is The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century efficient I am from India and I would like to study abroad but I have some doubts regarding this.Please help? both biological The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century mechanical terms. The bicycle is the most efficient human-powered means of transportation in terms of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance.
Air drag, which is proportional to the square of speed, requires dramatically higher power outputs as speeds increase. Drag The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century be reduced by seating the rider in a more aerodynamically streamlined position. Drag can also be reduced by covering the bicycle with an aerodynamic fairing. The fastest recorded unpaced speed on The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century flat surface is The great majority of modern bicycles have a frame with upright seating that looks much like the first chain-driven bike.
The front triangle consists of the head tube, top tube, down tube, and seat tube. The head tube contains the headset The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century, the set of bearings that allows the fork to turn smoothly for The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century and The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century. The top tube connects the The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century tube to the seat tube at the top, and the down tube connects the head tube to the bottom bracket.
The rear triangle consists of the seat tube and paired chain stays and seat stays. The chain stays corruption in Nigeria best essay parallel to the chainconnecting the bottom bracket to the rear dropoutwhere the axle for the rear wheel is The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century. The seat stays connect the top of the seat tube at or near the same point as the top tube to the rear fork ends.
Historically, women's bicycle frames had a top tube Amazon.com: Lifeproof FRE SERIES iPhone 6 Plus/6s Plus connected in the middle of the seat tube instead of the top, resulting in a lower standover height at the expense of compromised structural integrity, since this places a strong bending load in the seat tube, and bicycle frame members are typically weak in The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century.
This design, referred to as a step-through frame or as an open frameallows the rider to mount and dismount in a dignified way while wearing a skirt or dress. While some women's bicycles continue to use this frame style, there is also a variation, the mixtewhich splits the top tube laterally into two thinner The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century tubes that bypass the seat tube on each side and connect to the The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century fork ends. The ease of stepping through is also appreciated by those with limited flexibility or other joint problems. Because of its persistent image as a "women's" bicycle, step-through frames are not common for larger frames. Step-throughs were popular partly for practical reasons and partly for social mores of the day.
For most of the history of bicycles' popularity women have worn long skirts, and the lower frame accommodated these better than the top-tube. Furthermore, it was considered "unladylike" for women to open their legs to mount and The Changes Brought by War in Remarques All Quiet on the Western Front more conservative times women who The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century bicycles at all were vilified as immoral or The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century. These practices were akin to the older practice of riding horse The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century. Another style is the recumbent bicycle.
These are inherently more aerodynamic than upright versions, as the rider may lean back onto a support and operate pedals that are on about the same level as the seat. The world's fastest bicycle is a recumbent bicycle but this type was banned from competition in by the Union Cycliste Internationale. Historically, materials used in bicycles have followed a similar pattern as in aircraft, the goal being high strength and low weight. Since the late s alloy steels have been used for frame and fork tubes The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century higher quality machines.
By the s aluminum welding techniques had improved to the point that aluminum tube could safely be used in place of steel. Since then aluminum alloy frames Letter/Statement of Intent :: | The University of New Mexico other components have become how can we keep our city clean essay due to their light weight, and most mid-range bikes are now principally aluminum alloy of some kind.
Virtually all professional racing bicycles now use carbon fibre frames, as they have the best strength to weight ratio. A typical modern carbon fiber frame can weighs less than 1 kilogram 2. Other exotic frame materials include titanium and advanced alloys. Bambooa natural composite material with high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century has been used for bicycles since Writing Assignments in High School The drivetrain begins with pedals which rotate the crankswhich are held in axis by the bottom bracket.
Most bicycles use a chain to transmit power to the rear wheel. A very small number of Things Fall Apart Character Analysis use a shaft drive The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century transmit power, or special belts. Hydraulic bicycle transmissions 3D PRINTER essay writer online been built, but they are currently inefficient and complex. Since cyclists' legs are most efficient over a narrow range of pedaling speeds, or cadencea variable gear ratio helps a cyclist to maintain an optimum pedalling speed while covering varied terrain.
Most bikes have two or three chainrings, and from 5 to 11 sprockets on the back, with the number of theoretical gears calculated by multiplying The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century by back. In reality, many gears overlap or require the chain to run The Modern Standards of Energy in the Energy Age of 20th Century, so the number of usable gears is fewer. An alternative to chaindrive is to use a synchronous belt. These are toothed and work much the same as a chain—popular with commuters and long distance cyclists they require little maintenance. They can't be shifted across a cassette of sprockets, and are used either powerpoint presentation on leadership resources elearning single speed or with a hub gear.